发明有声音:马克·吐温(Mark Twain)的故事,马丁声学和世界上第一个吉他效果

JHS踏板至高无上的乔什·斯科特(Josh Scott)继续探索吉他效果的演变,并引入了美国历史的另一个偶像。支撑自己,我们要下河。

在我们第一次探讨电力与吉他之间的漫长而有趣的关系中,we caught up with Benjamin Franklin and explored the huge impact that George Beauchamp had on the history of our instrument。This time out I’d like to introduce you to another fellow whose name might not be instantly familiar to you – Samuel Clemens.

克莱门斯是19世纪中叶小姐ouri native who changed careers more often than Arnold Schwarzenegger (look, how many people can put年轻的大力神和“加利福尼亚州州长”在同一简历上?)。克莱门斯(Clemens)最初是一名密西西比河船飞行员,然后在同盟国民兵中担任第二中尉两周,然后与他的兄弟猎户座(Orion)一起抛弃向西走。

In Virginia City, Nevada Clemens tried and failed to make it as a silver miner, and eventually went to work for a local newspaper called theTerritorial Enterprise。This career, at long last, was the one that stuck, and Samuel ended up writing at least 17 books, some of which you’d probably heard of:The Adventures of Tom Sawyer,,,,A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court,,,,王子和贫民,,,,andThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn


Yup. Samuel Clemens became Mark Twain, the father of American literature. Now, I can hear you already: “But, Josh, this isGuitar Magazine,,,,not文学评论– why are you talking about Mark Twain?” Well, I’m bringing up Mr Twain because, believe it or not, he had something in common with us: he bought a guitar.

One day in 1861, as he made plans to avoid the Civil War and head out west with his brother, he purchased a used 1835马丁Parlor acoustic for $10. He travelled the rest of his life with this guitar by his side; it was a constant companion

I’m not sure what first piqued Twain’s interest. Maybe he heard a particularly metal cover of迪克西orHark! The Herald Angels Sing(two of the most popular songs in his day). Maybe he wanted to impress his girlfriend. Maybe he wanted something to help pass the time during histwo-weekwagon ride to California. Personally, I like to imagine that just like me, he heard a song, he connected with it and he wanted to make that kind of music himself.

Mike McCready
Mike McCready and his Les Paul in 1992, striking a chord with millions of teenagers. Mike McCready of Pearl Jam. Image: PEbet Roberts / Redferns / Getty Images


当我14岁的时候,我听到了珍珠果酱’son my brother’s cassette player and realised that somehow, a guitarist in his late twenties had an open window into my ninth-grade soul. With the sound of that main riff and solo,Mike McCready可能还通过扬声器伸出援手并重新打动我的大脑。在那之前,我从未对音乐感兴趣,但是这一刻改变了我。我必须有吉他。我不得不创建那首歌中听到的声音。

在我的母亲缠住了数周之后,她终于带回家了一个美丽的韩国制作的同步Stratocastercopy, and suddenly I was part of a bigger story. I was Luke Skywalker, a young Jedi bursting with almost unlimited potential, part of an ancient and honourable order who held the world’s fate in their hands. And if that sounds dramatic, you obviously aren’t a real guitarist and I forgive you.


但是与我不同,26岁的马克·吐温(Mark TwainWonderwall,但吉他仍然吸引了他。他的马丁原声吉他的简单声音已经足够了 - 这本身就是宏观进化的一部分,其历史可以追溯到两千年以上,回到第一条弦的那一天。。我听到的声音来自Mike McCready和Stone Gossard吉他是同一声音的进一步发展。顺便说一句,如果您有兴趣了解通货膨胀和名人文化,那么吐温的10美元的价值是1500万美元in 2015. That’s enough to buy more than one million Synsonics Strat copies, and there’s no way my mom could have fit those in her station wagon.

Fender Brown Deluxe
Fender’s brown Deluxe was introduced in 1961 and its tremolo circuit remains a high-water mark for tonehounds

Fantastic journey

So, how did we make the journey from Mark Twain’s acoustic guitar to Mike McCready’s莱斯·保罗? It’s quite simple: 134 years of invention. Martin went on to create the dreadnought acoustic,Gibson令人惊叹的archtop吉他,李尔王ned last time, Rickenbacker merged the primitive guitar of the time with a new and exciting force called electricity. The electric guitar’s new voice demanded a new audience and set the guitar on its course for world domination.





Indeed, so popular was this effect that tremolo has the distinction of being the first-ever stand-alone guitar effect. Released in 1946 by the DeArmond Research company of Toledo, Ohio, it was called the Tremolo Control, model 601, and was designed by Harry DeArmond. Yup, the same Harry DeArmond who helped his brother John market the first-ever commercially available guitar pickup on the market, which they had created from parts found on a Model-T Ford.

About the same size as a shoebox, the Tremolo Control is perfectly simple, and rather familiar to modern guitarists: two control knobs called speed and increase, a handle, an input jack for your instrument, power cord and a pre-attached output cable that plugs into your amplifier.

Inside the enclosure it gets a bit more unconventional. The main thing is a canister that looks like a can of beans, which is full of liquid and also contains a little electrode. In use, a motor moves the can, which sloshes the liquid around, shorting out the signal whenever the fluid touches it, creating the tremolo effect. It might not pass modern health and safety standards, but it worked. Tremolo and guitar – friends forever.

The first known recording of a tremolo effect is a great deal more subtle however, listen carefully toSugar Babe Blues经过cigar-chomping blues singer Roosevelt Sykes in 1942 and you can just make it out in the background. By 1955 we were done with being subtle, and Bo Diddley put it front and centre of his smash-hitBo Diddley。这首曲目使颤音(Tremolo)闻名,并开始以沼泽,神秘的语气来塑造流行音乐。没有它,我们将没有一切Gimme Shelter经过The Rolling Stonesto骨头经过Radiohead- 很难想象。吉他第一次有人造运动和超出其自然声音的个性:这是新时代的吉他时代的开始。

Once I get my time machine up and running – which should be any day now – I’m going to visit our old friend Mark Twain at some roadside saloon, and we’ll start a Western Americana Grunge band. In the meantime, I’m confident that he’d be proud to know that he played a part not only in the renaissance of American literature, but in a story that connects millions of people from all across the world: the tale of the ever-evolving guitar.

For more from Josh Scott check